09/01/2011

## Caltech Team Says Sporulation May Have Given Rise to the Bacterial Outer Membrane

Kimm Fesenmaier

Bacteria can generally be divided into two classes: those with just one membrane and those with two. Now researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have used a powerful imaging technique to find what they believe may be the missing link between the two classes, as well as a plausible explanation for how the outer membrane may have arisen.

08/16/2011

## HIV Havens: Caltech Researchers Find New Clues About How HIV Reservoirs May Form

Katie Neith

Much like cities organize contingency plans and supplies for emergencies, chronic infectious diseases like HIV form reservoirs that ensure their survival in adverse conditions. But these reservoirs—small populations of viruses or bacteria of a specific type that persist despite attack by the immune system or drug treatment—are not always well understood. Now, however, researchers at Caltech believe they have begun to decode how a reservoir of infection can persist in HIV-positive populations.

08/02/2011

## New Faculty Member Brings Quantitative Approaches to Biology

Katie Neith

Lea Goentoro remembers the precise moment that biology made an impression on her. It was 2002 and she was a PhD candidate in chemical engineering at Princeton. During a presentation, developmental biologist and Nobel laureate Eric Wieschaus showed a movie of a live fly embryo under a microscope that was undergoing gastrulation, a process she found fascinating. Now, nine years after that fateful day in New Jersey, Goentoro is Caltech's newest faculty member in the Division of Biology.

07/29/2011

## Caltech Researchers Increase the Potency of HIV-Battling Proteins

Kimm Fesenmaier

When it comes to a small HIV-fighting protein, called cyanovirin-N, Caltech researchers have found that two are better than one.

07/25/2011

## Sharper, Deeper, Faster: Interdisciplinary Team Develops Advanced Live-Imaging Approach

Katie Neith

For modern biologists, the ability to capture high-quality, 3D images of living tissues or organisms over time is necessary to answer problems in areas ranging from genomics to neurobiology and developmental biology. Looking to improve upon current methods of imaging, researchers from Caltech have developed a novel approach that could redefine optical imaging of live biological samples by simultaneously achieving high resolution, high penetration depth, and high imaging speed.

07/17/2011

## Neutralizing HIV

Katie Neith

Each time a virus invades a healthy individual, antibodies created by the body fight to fend off the intruders. For HIV, the antibodies are very specific and are generated too slowly to combat the rapidly changing virus. However, scientists have found that some HIV-positive people develop highly potent antibodies that can neutralize different subtypes of the virus. Now, a study involving Caltech researchers points to the possibility of using these neutralizing antibodies in the development of a vaccine.

07/05/2011

## Tracking Bacteriophages

Lori Oliwenstein

Figuring a virus's host is can be difficult, especially when you're talking about bacteriophages, a group of bacteria-infecting viruses. The problem lies in identifying which bacteriophages are infecting which bacteria, without having to culture either the viruses or their hosts in the lab. Now, a Caltech-led team has created a technique that can "physically link single bacterial cells harvested from a natural environment with a viral marker genes," the scientists report in the July 1 issue of the journal Science.

06/22/2011

06/16/2011

06/03/2011

## From Pre-Gut Cells to Glory

Katie Neith

For all animals, development begins with the embryo. It is here that uniform cells divide and diversify, and blueprints are laid for future structures, like skeletal and digestive systems. Although biologists have known for some time that signaling processes exist at this stage, there has not been a clear framework explanation of how it all comes together. Now, a research team at Caltech has outlined exactly how specific sets of cells in sea-urchin embryos differentiate to become the endoderm.